Heim theory

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Heim theory is a physics theory, initially proposed by a German physicist, the late Burkhard Heim, that attempts to develop a theory of everything. Heim theory's six dimensional model was later extended to eight and twelve dimensions, in collaboration with W. Dröscher.<ref name=g1/><ref name=g2/><ref name="hpcc-space.de/publications">List of Publications</ref> Walter Dröscher and Jochem Hauser, professor and former head of the Aero- and Aerothermodynamics Dept. of the European Space Agency<ref>AIAA-Forschungspreis für Professor Dr. Jochem Häuser idw-online.de, 05/11/2005; Prof. Dr. Jochem Häuser@, Ostfalia HaW Campus Suderburg</ref> have attempted to apply it to nonconventional space propulsion and faster than light concepts, as well as the origin of dark matter.<ref name="hpcc-space.de/publications"/><ref>T. Auerbach Heim’s Theory of Elementary Particle Structures</ref> Heim theory has been criticized because much of the original work and subsequent theories were not initially peer reviewed.<ref name="Ludwiger">v. Ludwiger, L. (2001, January 28) Zum Tode des Physikers Burkhard Heim. Feldkirchen-Westerham.[1]</ref> Heim eventually published some of his work in 1977<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> and more recently aspects of Extended Heim Theory have also been submitted to the scientific community's inspection.<ref>Hauser, J., Dröscher, W., Emerging Physics for Novel Field Propulsion Science
Paper presented at the Space, Propulsion & Energy Sciences International Forum SPESIF-2010, Johns Hopkins - APL, Laurel, Maryland, 23–25 February 2010, and published by the American Institute of Physics. [2] </ref> Heim attempted to resolve incompatibilities between quantum theory and general relativity. To meet that goal, he developed a mathematical approach based on quantizing spacetime, and proposed the "metron" as a (two-dimensional) quantum of (multidimensional) space. Part of the theory is formulated in terms of difference operators; Heim called this type of mathematical formalism Selector calculus.<ref>Template:Cite book</ref>

File:Wormhole travel as envisioned by Les Bossinas for NASA.jpg
Artist's conception of a warp drive design. Heim theory proposes timelike extra dimensions of space to permit faster than light travel.


The mathematics behind Heim's theory requires extending spacetime with extra dimensions; various formulations by Heim and his successors involve six, eight, or twelve dimensions. Within the quantum spacetime of Heim theory, elementary particles are represented as "hermetry forms" or multidimensional structures of space. Heim has claimed that his theory yields particle masses directly from fundamental physical constants and that the resulting masses are in agreement with experiment. This claim was disputed by physicist John Reed in 2006, who subsequently changed his mind with further research and now thinks there is something to Heim's theory.<ref>J. Reed (2006, 2007); quoted in Rise and Fall of the Heim Theory . Retrieved 16 June 2007.</ref> In the Physics Forum, Sept. 4 2007, Reed wrote, "I'm more convinced now that there is really something to his theory. I don't understand much of the math yet. It's very complicated and different from anything I'm familiar with. I have a Ph.D. in physics so I know something about physics."

Combinations of three u, d or s quarks forming baryons with a spin-Template:Frac form the uds baryon decuplet. Heim theory utilizes complex particles like baryons to explain quintessence.
For Heim, this composite nature was an expression of internal, six-dimensional structure. After his death, others have continued with his multi-dimensional "quantum hyperspace" framework. Most notable are the theoretical generalizations put forth by Walter Dröscher, who worked in collaboration with Heim at some length. Their combined theories are also known as "Heim-Dröscher" theories or Extended Heim theory.<ref name="igw-resch-verlag.at">igw-resch-verlag.at/resch_verlag/burkhard_heim/band3.html</ref>

There are some differences between the original "Heim Theory" and the extended versions proposed by his successors. For example, in its original version Heim theory has six dimensions, i.e., the 4 of normal space-time with two extra timelike dimensions. Dröscher first extended this to eight and claimed that this yields quantum electrodynamics along with the "particle zoo" of mesons and baryons. Later, four more dimensions were used to arrive at the twelve dimensional version, which involves extra gravitational forces; one of these corresponds to quintessence.<ref name="igw-resch-verlag.at"/> Although it purports to unify quantum mechanics and gravitation, the original Heim theory cannot be considered a theory of everything because it does not incorporate all known experimental data. In particular, it gives predictions only for properties of individual particles, without making detailed predictions about how they interact. The theory also allows for particle states that don't exist in the Standard Model, including a neutral electron and two extra light neutrinos, and many other extra states. Presently, there is no known mechanism for the exclusion of these extra particles, nor an explanation for their non-observation.<ref>Introduction to Heim's Mass Formula. Selected Results</ref> Although it is claimed that Heim theory can incorporate the modern structure of particle physics,<ref name="igw-resch-verlag.at"/> the available results predict the masses for composite hadrons rather than quarks and do not include gluons or the W and Z bosons,<ref>Walter Dröscher, Jochem Hauser Coupled Gravitational Fields. A New Paradigm for Propulsion Science</ref> which are experimentally very well established.<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref>Template:Cite journal</ref><ref>Template:Cite journal</ref> In Heim theory, quarks are interpreted as 'condensation zones' of the six-dimensional internal structure of the particles,<ref>Template:Cite web</ref> and the gluons are asserted to be associated with one of the "hermetry forms".<ref>Walter Dröscher and Jochem Hauser Extended Heim Theory, Physics of Spacetime, and Field Propulsion, 10 April 2006</ref>


A small group of physicists is now trying to bring the theory to the attention of the scientific community, by publishing and copy-editing Heim's work, and by checking and expanding the relevant calculations. Recently,Template:When a series of presentations of Heim theory was made by Hauser, Dröscher and von Ludwiger. Papers based on the former were published in conference proceedings by the American Institute of Physics journal in 2005 and 2010 (see table of contents in <ref>Template:Cite web</ref>)<ref> Walter Droescher @ Astrophysics Data System adsabs.harvard.edu</ref> One article has won a prize for the best paper received in 2005 by the AIAA Nuclear and Future Flight Technical Committee.<ref> Walter Dröscher @ Electronic Library; The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, aiaa.org</ref><ref> pdf.aiaa.org</ref> Von Ludwiger's presentation was to the First European Workshop on Field Propulsion, January 20–22, 2001 at the University of Sussex. Dröscher claimed to have successfully extended Heim's six-dimensional theory, which had been sufficient for derivation of the mass formula, to an eight-dimensional theory which included particle interactions. Marc Millis, former head of the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program mentioned the Dröscher/Heim concepts in an 2010 International Astronautical Federation conference contribution as "Not yet rigorously articulated".<ref>Bio: Marc Millis grc.nasa.gov; pdf p.5. Table 1</ref><ref>Marc G. Millis, Erik W. Davis Frontiers of propulsion science. American Inst. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston 2009, ISBN 978-1-56347-956-4, p.218-221</ref><ref>Marc Millis on Hyperspace Propulsion & Hyperdrive to Epsilon Eridani? centauri-dreams.org, 01/2006</ref>


Dröscher and Hauser developed the category of non-ordinary matter in 2008.<ref>Hauser, J., Private communication to H. Deasy, July 2008.</ref> Heim theory predicts a neutral electron,<ref>T.Auerbach and I. von Ludwiger, "Heim ́s Theory of Elementary Particle Structures, Journal of Scientific Exploration,Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 217-231, 1992; available here [3]</ref> although in a popular talk, Heim notes that while a neutral electron is allowed by his theory, it is not required.<ref>See end of chapter 9.2 (p. 73) of Heim's MBB presentation (1976)</ref> It would be difficult to reconcile a prediction of a neutral electron with the lack of any observation of the particle <ref>Abraham Seiden, Particle Physics: A Comprehensive Introduction, Addison Wesley (2004); ISBN 978-0-8053-8736-0</ref>Template:Verify source. According to the Totalitarian principle that every interaction not forbidden must occur, such a light neutral particle should be one of the possible end products of the decay of every known elementary particle,<ref>B. R. Martin and G. Shaw Particle Physics, Wiley (2nd edition, 1997) ISBN 978-0-471-97285-3</ref> and so theoretically has a small probability of occurring in every experiment involving particle collisions.

Predictions for experimental masses

Particle name Theoretical mass (MeV/c²) Experimental mass (MeV/c²) Absolute error Relative error standard deviations
Proton 938.27959 938.272029±0.000080 0.00756 0.00000776 94.5
Neutron 939.57337 939.565360±0.000081 0.00801 0.00000853 98.9
Electron 0.51100343 0.510998918±0.000000044 0.00000451 0.00000883 102.5
Neutral electron 0.51617049 Unobserved N/A N/A N/A
Particle type Particle name Theoretical mass (MeV/c²) Measured mass (MeV/c²) Theoretical mean life/10−8 sec Measured mean life/10−8 sec
Lepton Ele-Neutrino 0.381 × 10−8 < 5 × 10−8 Infinite Infinite
Lepton Mu -Neutrino 0.00537 < 0.17 Infinite Infinite
Lepton Tau-Neutrino 0.010752 < 18.2 Infinite Infinite
Lepton Neutrino 4 0.021059 Excluded by LEP
(unless > 45000)
Infinite N/A
Lepton Neutrino 5 0.207001 Excluded by LEP
(unless > 45000)
Infinite N/A
Lepton Electron 0.51100343 0.51099907 ± 0.00000015 Infinite Infinite
Lepton Muon 105.65948493 105.658389 ± 0.000034 219.94237553 219.703 ± 0.004
Baryon Proton 938.27959246 938.27231 ± 0.00026 Infinite Infinite
Baryon Neutron 939.57336128 939.56563 ± 0.00028 917.33526856 × 108 (886.7 ± 1.9) × 108

The predicted masses were claimed to have been derived by Heim using only 4 parameters - h (Planck's Constant), G (Gravitational constant), vacuum permittivity and permeability.


Physicist Gerhard Bruhn has criticized Heim theory for not having been properly peer reviewed. <ref name="bruhn">Remarks on Burkhard Heim's IGW Successors J. Hauser and W. Droescher and their Theory, Gerhard W. Bruhn, Darmstadt University of Technology, March 29, 2006</ref>

According to a 2006 posting to the "PhysicsOrgForum" by John Reed,<ref>John Reed, Understanding Heim Theory, 12-26-2006, posted to sci.physics.research</ref> the apparent success of the Heim theory predicting particle masses may be illusory. Nevertheless, since the excited states calculated were in fact "useless" (according to Reed), it was unclear whether any other predictions of the Heim theory remain.<ref>G. Landis, "Heim Theory" 2007 . Retrieved 13 Sept 2007.</ref>

In a later posting in August 2007, Reed received the updated 1989 mass formula code from the Heim theory group, and on the basis of this, withdrew the assertion that both the 1989 and 1982 code almost certainly used quantum numbers based on the A matrix. Template:Quotation

On September 4, Reed reported on results obtained by the updated 1989 formula: Template:Quotation

There exists a preliminary version of this derivation available on-line.<ref>Zur Herleitung der Heimschen Massenformel</ref> This version still may contain some errors, and the authors, the Heim Theory Group, are in the process of checking and amending it.<ref>Einführung in die Heimsche Massenformel</ref>

More recently, Reed said: Template:Quotation

Predictions for a quantum gravity force

In the 1950s, Heim had predicted what he termed a 'contrabary' effect whereby photons, under the influence of a strong magnetic field in a certain configuration, could be transformed into 'gravito-photons', which would provide an artificial gravity force. This idea caused great interest at the time.<ref>Testing Heim's theories, Newscientist</ref> A recent series of experiments by Martin Tajmar et al., partly funded by European Space Agency, may have produced the first evidence of artificial gravity <ref>esa.int</ref> (about 18 orders of magnitude greater than what General Relativity predicts). Template:As of, groups at Berkeley and elsewhere were attempting to reproduce this effect. By applying their 'gravito-photon' theory to bosons, Dröscher and Hauser were able to predict the size and direction of the effect. A further prediction of Heim-Dröscher theory shows how a different arrangement of the experiment by Tajmar et al. could produce a vertical force against the direction of the Earth's gravity.

However, in July 2007, a group in Canterbury, New Zealand, said that they failed to reproduce Tajmar et al.Template:'s effect, concluding that, based on the accuracy of the experiment, any such effect, if it exists, must be 21 times smaller than that predicted by the theory proposed by Tajmar in 2006.<ref name=graham>Template:Cite journal</ref> Tajmar et al., however, interpreted a trend in the Canterbury data of the order expected, though almost hidden by noise. They also reported on their own improved laser gyro measurements of the effect, but this time found 'parity breaking' in that only for clockwise spin did they note an effect, whilst for the Canterbury group there was only an anti-clockwise effect .<ref>Search for Frame-Dragging-Like Signals Close to Spinning Superconductors</ref> In the same paper, the Heim-Theory explanation of the effect is, for the first time, cited as a possible cause of the artificial gravity. Tajmar has recently found additional support from Gravity Probe B results.<ref>[0707.3806] Search for Frame-Dragging-Like Signals Close to Spinning Superconductors. Arxiv.org. Retrieved on 2010-10-17.</ref>

Selector calculus

Selector calculus is a form of calculus, employed by Burkhard Heim in formulating his theory of physics. The differencing operator is intended to be analogous to taking derivatives of functions.

<math>\eth</math> (which Heim calls Metrondifferential in German) is defined to be the same as <math>\nabla</math> in difference operator. The summation operator is intended to be analogous with integration. Instead of using the integral sign, Heim substitutes a bold italicised capital S for the typical integral sign. In this case
<math>S^{n_2}_{n_1} \phi \eth n = S^{n_2}_{n_1} \eth \psi
= \sum_{n=n_1}^{n_2} \left ( \psi(n) - \psi(n-1) \right )
= \psi(n_2) - \psi (n_1 - 1). </math>

Note that <math>\phi \eth n = \eth \psi</math>. <ref>Burkhard Heim, Elementarstrukturen der Materie - Einheitliche strukturelle Quantenfeldtheorie der Materie und Gravitation, Resch Verlag, (1980, 1998) ISBN 3-85382-008-5. Selector calculus is covered in chapter 3 (pp. 99–172). </ref>

See also

Further reading

First and second publication in a peer reviewed scientific journal

  • Template:Cite journal
  • Hauser, J., Dröscher, W., Emerging Physics for Novel Field Propulsion Science
    Paper presented at the Space, Propulsion & Energy Sciences International Forum SPESIF-2010, Johns Hopkins - APL, Laurel, Maryland, 23–25 February 2010, published by the American Institute of Physics. [4]




External links

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Sites offering explanations of and discussions about Heim theory related topics:

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